• Mathematics,  Philosophy,  Physics

    Quantum Theory and Sāńkhya for Beginners

    Many people have expressed interest in understanding quantum theory—both in terms of the underlying scientific problems, as well as what solutions could look like. While I have provided technical explanations in the past, they often prove inadequate for those who may not follow the technicalities. This post, rather ambitiously hopes to cover that shortfall. It covers the basic mathematical ideas underlying quantum theory, the nature of the quantum problem, what its semantic solution looks like, and the type of mathematics needed to formulate a formal scientific solution. For the sake of simplicity, I will cover the non-relativistic version of the theory, and then describe the unification problem. Wherever necessary, I…

  • Economics,  Philosophy,  Physics

    Why Sāńkhya Doesn’t Have Objects of Action

    Even a casual look at Sāńkhya reveals an apparent asymmetry in its ontology, namely that there are five sense-objects called Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Ether, corresponding to the five senses of knowledge Nose, Tongue, Eyes, Skin, and Ears respectively, but there aren’t corresponding sense-objects for the five senses of action, namely, Hands, Legs, Anus, Genitals, and Speech. Why do senses of knowledge have their corresponding objects and the senses of action don’t? This post delves into this question and demonstrates how action and sensation are unified in Sāńkhya. In getting to this conclusion, the post also discusses why many fundamental ideas in science such as “force”, “property” and “law”…

  • Philosophy,  Physics,  Religion

    The Four Ethers of Sāńkhya Philosophy

    Sāńkhya describes four ethers—vaikhari, madhyama, pasyanti, and para—which are successively deeper aspects of the material world and contain different phenomena. The understanding of the successive ethers depends on the understanding of the previous ether. In that sense, there are four tiers of causality and each such tier must be fully understood to obtain a complete understanding of material nature. This post attempts to describe these four ethers and their respective differences. I will begin with the problems of causality in the grossest ether called vaikhari which comprises material objects and their sensations, and use it to develop an understanding of the higher ethers. This, like the previous post, is a…