The Mind-Body problem in Western philosophy concerns the difficulty in conceiving the nature of interaction between mind and body, considering that these two are supposed to be different substances—one physical and material while the other spiritual or mystical. In Indian philosophy, matter itself transforms into spirit and how this transformation occurs poses a serious problem.
A common argument against the mind-body duality is that mind is an epiphenomenon of chemical reactions in the brain much like the fluidity of water is a consequence of molecular interactions. This argument seems quite appealing because if we reduce water to its molecules, we don’t see fluidity in each molecule; fluidity is only a property of the collection of molecules. The mind-brain reductionist similarly argues that the mind’s properties—sensation, thinking, feeling, willing—are features of the brain, although individual molecules that make up the brain don’t have these properties.