• Mathematics,  Religion

    The Arithmetic of Concepts

    In all religious philosophies, God is the original person, Who creates all else. If we were to count things, then God would represent 1. In Vedic philosophy, additionally, all that is created is also a part of God, Who is then described as the complete truth. In effect, since God is the complete truth, everything that follows is a partial truth. Similarly, since God is the original truth, everything that follows is a relative truth compared to the original truth. The partial truth represents a fraction of God, and the relative truth represents an order or succession among the fractions, which can be counted as 1, 2, 3, etc. Two…

  • Logic,  Mathematics,  Philosophy

    The Sāńkhya Theory of Five Elements

    This post elaborates on the Sāńkhya theory of the five “gross” elements. The theory is rather complicated, and not well-understood today. One primary source of confusions is a comparison between the Sāńkhya elements and the Greek elements going by the same name. This post will hopefully illustrate how the Sāńkhya elements are deeply enmeshed with a model of perception and a science involving the rule of demigods in the material world that has no precedent. The classic Vedic text Śrimad Bhāgavatam (SB) is used in this discussion rather than the later texts like Sāṁkhyakārikā.

  • Computing,  Logic,  Mathematics,  Philosophy,  Physics

    The Paradox of Natural Laws and Its Resolution

    In an earlier post, I described the problem of computing in nature, namely that scientific laws employ mathematical formulae, but it is not clear how these formulae are being calculated in nature. The reasons for this are historical and date back to Newton’s formulation of the three laws of motion. While Newton had produced a mechanics, he had not himself envisioned machines. He was only trying to describe celestial and terrestrial motion, and his laws were later used to create machines. As a result, the components of reality in Newton’s mechanics (particles and properties) are unrelated to the components of a Turing Machine that can calculate the formulae. This post…